Monday, August 23, 2010

TEXTILE WOVEN DESIGN, TEXTILE FABRIC SAMPLING AND TEXTILE FIBRES By Khalid Ameer Rafique, GIFT: Gandhi Institute of Fashion and Textile, Ahmedabad Gujarat India




NATURAL FIBRE:
“PLANT BASED CELLULOSIC FIBRES”
COTTON – pure cellulose shrub fibre
FLAX – vegetable, bast, herbaceous fibre
JUTE – vegetable Indian family plant bast fibre
RAMIE – lustrous and nettle family fibre “rhea fibre”
HEMP – “cottonization” herbaceous plant
HEMP-PALM – Chinese/Japanese palm leaves
COIR – coconut fibre
RAFFIA – raffia palm fibre
BAMBOO – grass pulp fibre
PINE – pineapple leaf fibre
SISAL – tropical Mexican plant leaf fibre
SOY PROTEIN – tofu manufacturing waste fibre
ABACA – Manila hemp                              
BHINDI “LADY FINGER” – vegetable fibre
BYSSUS – fine linen or cotton fibre
MODAL - beech tree soft plant fibre and
BANANA – tropical plant tree fibre etc.

ANIMAL BASED PROTEIN FIBRES:
WOOL – sheep wool                                              
LAMBSWOOL – lamb’s wool
CASHMERE WOOL – Indian Cashmere goat hair
MOHAIR WOOL – North African Angora goat
ALPACA/VICUNA/GUANACO/LLAMA WOOL – South American Camelid varieties
ANGORA WOOL – Angora rabbit “wool type hair”
RABBIT – rabbit’s hair
YAK – ox shaggy hair
CAMEL HAIR – Arabian dromedary and northeast Asian Bactrian Camel hair wool
SILK – mulberry, muga, eri, tropical tasar and oak tasar silk fibre
CHIENGORA – ladies hair etc.

SYNTHETIC AND SEMISYNTHETIC
“MAN MADE” FIBRES:
RAYON [VISCOSE] – semi synthetic regenerated cellulose fibre
ACETATE - semi synthetic cellulose fibre                                                       
TENCEL – wood pulp semi synthetic cellulose fibre
POLYESTER – polymer, polyethylene, terephthalate fibre
ACRYLIC – acrylonitrile fibre
LUREX – polyamide, polyester fibre
NYLON – polyamide fibre
LYCRA [SPANDEX] – polyurethane fibre
ARAMID – aromatic polyamide fibre
INGEO - polylactide fibre
LUMINEX – optics fibre
LYOCELL – cellulose fibre
OLEFIN – polyethylene, polypropylene fibre
PLA fibre - POLYLACTIDE – polymers, lactic acid fibre etc.

METALLIC FIBRE: Metallic fibre are drawn from ductile metals such as copper, gold, and silver and extruded or deposited from more brittle, such as nickel, aluminum, iron and stainless steel.

FIBREGLASS: Fiberglass is made from specific glass, which is optical fibre which comes from after purified natural quartz. Source of this fibre is silica fibre which got made out of sodium silicate.  And its basalt fibre is made from melted basalt.

MINERAL FIBRES: Asbestos is very common mineral fibre.

POLYMER FIBRES: Polymer Fibers are a subset of man-made fibres, which is based on synthetic chemicals rather than arising from natural materials by mechanical or physical process. These fibres are made from:
Polyamide nylon                                 
PET or PBT polyester
Phenol-formaldehyde “PF”
Polyvinyl chloride fibre “PVC” vinyon
Polyolefin’s “PP and PE” olefin fibre
Acrylic polyester, pure polyester PAN fibres
Aromatic polyamide
Polyethylene PE
Polyurethane fibre and
Elastolefin etc


MICROFIBRES: Micro fibres in textile, is refer to sub-denier fibre [such as polyester drawn to 0.5 denier]. Denier and Detex are two measurements of fibre yield on weight and length. If fibre density is known then that is fibre diameter, otherwise it is simpler to measure in micrometer. Because mostly all synthetic fibres are round in cross-section but specially design fibres can be hollow, oval, star-shaped or trilobal. Synthetic textile fibres are crimped to provide bulk in textile may be woven or knitted structure. These fibres surface is dull or bright. Dull surfaces reflect more light while bright tends to transmit light and make the fibre more transparent.

TEXTILE FIBRES ARE PUZZLE:
To learn in detail about Textile Fibers, which presently are available and in use, is not one man job, because each textile fibre character is differ to others with its own minute accepting rigidity while using in textile spinning dyeing printing and processing.

Without fibres and fibres knowledge, no one can think good textile or make and if you wants to make good and more good textile, then learn all different textile fibers tactilely, see physically its softness stiffness smoothness bulkiness length wise coarser or thickness etc,   chemically for other part of textile dyeing, printing,  processing and heat drying or fabric setting systems and possibilities, for blends of textile, its playable ability and fibres physical strength along with its tenacity elasticity [curliness/spring type/spiral or its natural ups and down like slub], Breaking strength with absorb moisture from nature and its flammability etc.
United Textile is not complicated, it is as easy as you breath, just learn as above said mention then you yourself will find always “Textile is your baby” which helps you for mixing different fibres in spinning, dyeing, printing and processing and every time you will develop new textile, which will satisfy human egos. And if you see other way around as above said mention textile knowledge, one can dye the fibres in different colours and mixed them as you need in different textile fibers and spin, you will again finds in weaving different textile which can be redeye for its sheen to form colour glow on fabric surface and after fabric process setting you will find new look in textile fabric. Another way one can use fiber dyed yarn in design while weaving and there is  no end in textile designing, one can print  textile surface, on the same textile fabric for another value addition in textile designing, that shows textile and textile designing is most enjoyable subject with its working and living.     
The most promising is that, you are able to solve all textile puzzle of your own, if you follows the above said mention little knowledge in your practice. As we all aware of that many things we sees but mostly unseen for us and   we knows many things but actually we knows not, that is why we claim we did something new but what about when you do every day then it becomes very normal phenomena to solve little, little textile puzzle in your development and that is a habit not achievement, that’s the way textile industry grows with every season and time. 
Textile fibres are complex structure and its character in their individual unit is bulge with another textile fibres, is a mystic and to understand that for making good and more good textile in versatile feel and look, one need to study their behavior to solve the puzzle for onwards process of textile.

NATURAL FIBRES: Natural Fibres are those which is treasure criteria of God creation and that include plants, animals and those which geologically processed on/in earth and sea, with the permission of almighty God, which he sees while sitting high on throne of authority and more which human yet to discover by God permission the above said.

VEGETABLE FIBRES: Vegetable Fibres are generally based of cellulose often with lignin, for examples cotton, flax, jute, hemp, ramie and sisal etc. Plant fibres are used in manufacturing paper and textile and its dietary fibres [leaf stalk and seeds] are very important component for human needs as nutrition, other useful byproduct development and for medicines to cure human much complicate illness naturally.

WOOD FIBRES: Wood Fibres are different and distinguished from vegetable fibres, because its source is tree. Wood fibres forms from ground wood thermomechanical pulp [TMP] should be bleached or unbleached Kraft [wood Kraft] for as needed lightness in colour by sulphite to convert byproduct. Kraft [craft] and sulphite process is used to bring out lignin bonding from original wood structure and this freeing lignin from wood pulp gelatin, then is collected and wash to make free of sulphite than dry, fibres is ready to make paper or wood product such as fibre board and fine quality of lignin is used for textile by same or similar type process.  

ANIMAL FIBERS: Animal Fibres consist in largely proteins, for example silkworm, wool, hair and chshmere wool, mohair and angora are all protein fibres, etc

MAN-MADE FIBRES OR SYNTHETIC FIBRES: Man-made Fibres or chemical fibres, these are fibres whose chemical composition, structure and properties are significantly modified during its manufacturing process.
Source of synthetic fibres comes entirely from synthetic materials such as petrochemicals, unlike those man-made fibres which derived from natural substances as cellulose or protein.

CELLULOSE FIBRES: Cellulose Fibres are subset of man-made fibres, which is regenerated from natural cellulose and its sources, is mainly beech trees [large tree with grey bark and pale wood] and bamboos. Process of getting lignin of these trees pulp is almost same as mention above wood fibres.

SEMI-SYNTHETIC FIBRES: Semi-synthetic Fibres are made of from raw materials, which has naturally long chain of polymer structure chemistry, which modified and partially degraded by chemicals. Which is in contrast of complete synthetic fibres such as nylon [polyamide] or Dacron [polyester], which chemist synthesizes from low-molecular weight compounds by polymerization [chain-building] for its reaction. The first semi-synthetic fibre is rayon [viscose] viscose rayon fibres are developed as dictate fibre and triacetate fibre.

METALLIC FIBRE: Metallic fibre are drawn from ductile metals such as copper, gold, and silver and extruded or deposited from more brittle, such as nickel, aluminum, iron and stainless steel.

FIBREGLASS: Fiberglass is made from specific glass, which is optical fibre which comes from after purified natural quartz. Source of this fibre is silica fibre which got made out of sodium silicate.  And its basalt fibre is made from melted basalt.

MINERAL FIBRES: Asbestos is very common mineral fibre.

POLYMER FIBRES: Polymer Fibers are a subset of man-made fibres, which is based on synthetic chemicals rather than arising from natural materials by mechanical or physical process. These fibres are made from:
Polyamide nylon
PET or PBT polyester
Phenol-formaldehyde “PF”
Polyvinyl chloride fibre “PVC” vinyon
Polyolefin’s “PP and PE” olefin fibre
Acrylic polyester, pure polyester PAN fibres
Aromatic polyamide
Polyethylene PE
Polyurethane fibre and
Elastolefin etc

MICROFIBRES: Micro fibres in textile, is refer to sub-denier fibre [such as polyester drawn to 0.5 denier]. Denier and Detex are two measurements of fibre yield on weight and length. If fibre density is known then that is fibre diameter, otherwise it is simpler to measure in micrometer. Because mostly all synthetic fibres are round in cross-section but specially design fibres can be hollow, oval, star-shaped or trilobal. Synthetic textile fibres are crimped to provide bulk in textile may be woven or knitted structure. These fibres surface is dull or bright. Dull surfaces reflect more light while bright tends to transmit light and make the fibre more transparent.

“As mention underneath title of textile will be text soon for universal perusal”

COMPOSITE TEXTILE INDUSTRY WORKING PATTERN:
TEXTILE FIBRES AND SPINNING:
TEXTILE DYED FIBRES AND SPINNING:
TEXTILE FIBRES BLENDS AND SPINNING:
TEXTILE FIBRES AND DIFFERENT COUNT SPINNING:
TEXTILE DIFFERENT SPINNING METHODS:
TEXTILE YARN:
TEXTILE CONVERSION FACTOR:
TEXTILE FABRIC SETTING:
TEXTILE CALCULATION MESUREMENT:
TEXTILE CALCULATION FOR LENGTH AND WEIGHT:
TEXTILE WOVEN FABRIC DESIGNING:
TEXTILE DYEING:
TEXTILE PRINTING:
TEXTILE PROCESSING AND GRADING:
TEXTILE FABRIC MARKET AND USER:


GIFT WEBSITE: www.gift-india.com   
GIFT Email: info@gift-india.com   
                      giftinst@gmail.com
                      profkhalidrafique@gmail.com

GIFT Phone No. 079 26463702
Mobile: 09825698294
ADDRESS: White Cross Building, 15 Patel Society,
Near CII Building, Panchvati, Gulbaitekra Road,
Ahmedabad– 380006 Gujarat INDIA.

All copy rights are reserved by Gandhi Institute of Fashion and Textile (GIFT GANDHI NGOs), Ahmedabad. By Khalid Ameer Rafique, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.